The Project Management Body of Knowledge sixth edition suggests forty-nine different project management processes. Moreover, the five different process groups logically categorize these processes. Further, the ten knowledge areas also make use of these processes to establish a specific field of study. This article describes how the project management processes links with process groups and knowledge areas.
PMBOK Project Management Process
Project Management Body of Knowledge defines a process as a set of interrelated actions and activities performed to create a pre-specified product, service or result.
Each process utilizes a set of inputs, the application of tools and techniques, and the resulting output. The project team performs these project processes with stake holder interaction.
Processes generally fall into one of two following major categories.
Project Management Processes
PMBOK sixth edition further describes project management process as:
A systematic series of activities directed toward causing an end result where one or more inputs will be acted upon to create one or more outputs.
The product oriented processes specify and create the projects product. Product-oriented processes are typically defined by the project life cycle and vary by application area as well as the phase of the product life cycle.
The scope of the project cannot be defined without some basic understanding of how to create the specified product
Project Management Processes
The project management processes ensure effective flow of the project throughout its life cycle. The activities performed in a process assist in managing a project life cycle.
These processes encompass the tools and techniques involved in applying the skills and capabilities described in the knowledge area.
The output that each project management process produces establishes a logical connection with the other process. An output from one process results in either input to other process or project / project phase deliverable.
Project management processes fall into the following three categories.
- Processes used once or at predefined points in the project
- Process performed preodically as needed
- Processes performed continuously throughout the project.
PM Process Vs Knowledge Area Vs Process Groups
The following table indicates the number of processes in eack knowledge area and process groups.
|Knowledge Area||Initiating||Planning||Executing||Monitoring & Controlling||Closing||Total|
|Project Integration Management||1||1||2||2||1||7|
|Project Scope Management||4||2||6|
|Project Schedule Management||5||1||6|
|Project Cost Management||3||1||4|
|Project Quality Management||1||1||1||3|
|Project Resource Management||2||3||1||6|
|Project Communications Management||1||1||1||3|
|Project Risk Management||5||1||1||7|
|Project Procurement Management||1||1||1||3|
|Project Stakeholder Management||1||1||1||1||4|
PMP Process Chart PMBOK 6th edition
As a matter of fact, PMP process chart descried in PMBOK 6th edition establishes the relationship between the forty-nine project management processes, the five process groups, and the ten project management knowledge areas.
Project Management Process Groups
A process group logically organizes different project management processes. All project management processes are grouped into five categories known as Project Management Process Groups (or Process Groups).
The project team performs project activities from these groups or from an individual project management process in each project.
Following is the list of five process groups.
- Initiating Process Group
- Planning Process Group
- Executing Process Group
- Monitoring & Controlling Process Group
- Closing Process Group
Also read: Project Management Process Groups
Project Management Knowledge Areas In PMBOK
A knowledge area is an identified area of project management. Further, specific knowledge requirments define these knowledge areas. Also, its processes, practices, inputs, outputs, tools and techniques describe the knowledge area.
The following is the list of 10 project management knowledge areas with a brief description of each.
- Integration Management – integrates various project management processes and activities.
- Scope Management – ensures that the project includes all the work and only the work required to complete the project successfully.
- Schedule Management – manages timely completion of project.
- Cost Management – manages project completion within approved budget.
- Quality Management – incorporates organization’s quality policy and meets stakeholder’s objectives.
- Resource Management – manages resources for successful completion of the project.
- Communications Management – ensures effective information exchange for the project and its stakeholder.
- Risk Management – manages both positive & negative risks to optimize chances of project success.
- Procurement Management – manages product, services or results needed from outside the project team.
- Stakeholder Management – develops strategy to effectively engage with project stakeholders.
PMBOK is a guide that is applicable to projects across various industries. Therefore, Project Managers and their team should carefully address each process and its inputs and outputs and determine which are applicable to the project they are working on.
While considering the overall approach and methodology for the project, the project team should use PMBOK guide as a resource. Moreover, the project team should select processes that fit their project and appropraitley scale these processes for their specific project.
Therefore, tailoring is determining the appropriate combination of processes, inputs, tools, techniques, outputs, and life cycle phases to manage a project.
In short, execution of various project management processess enables project teams to deliver projects. Hence it is vital to understand each of these pocess in greater detail. So far these processes have formed the core of PMI’s PMBOK. However, with introduction of PMBOK seventh edition PMI is doing away with knowledge areas and process. Certainly, it will be very interesting to understand this change and its impact to PMP certification examination.